Attitude - Examples and Definition of Attitude


what is attitude in literature

Tone/Attitude Words. 1. accusatory-charging of wrong doing. 2. apathetic-indifferent due to lack of energy or concern. 3. awe-solemn wonder. 4. bitter-exhibiting strong animosity as a result of pain or grief. 5. cynical-questions the basic sincerity and goodness of people. 6. Attitude in the field of literature, also referred to as tone, is the way in which authors approach subjects and situations. As with other aspects of communication, the tone that . In literature an author sets the tone through words. The possible tones are bounded only by the number of possible emotions a human being can have. Diction and syntax often dictate what the author's (or character's) attitude toward his subject is at the time.

Examples of a Positive Attitude | Our Everyday Life

In psychologyattitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression towards a person, place, thing, or event the attitude object which in turn influences the individual's thought and action.

Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.

An attitude is an evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. Most contemporary perspectives what is attitude in literature attitudes permit that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both positive and negative attitudes toward the same object.

This has led to some discussion of whether individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same object. An attitude can be a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, events, activities, and ideas. It could be concrete, abstract or just about anything in your environment, but there is a debate about precise definitions. Eagly and Chaiken, what is attitude in literature, for example, define an attitude as "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.

The durability and impactfulness of influence depend upon the strength formed from consistency of heuristics. Jung's definition of attitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way".

Within this broad definition Jung defines several attitudes. In addition, Jung discusses the abstract attitude. By this I mean a peculiarity of thinking and feeling which is the antithesis of abstraction". What is attitude in literature attitude of a person is determined by psychological factors like ideas, what is attitude in literature, values, beliefs, perception, etc.

All these have a complex role in determining a person's attitude. Beliefs can be patently and unequivocally false. For example, surveys show that a third of U. Another important factor that affects attitude is symbolic interactionismthese are rife with powerful symbols and charged with affect which can lead to a selective perception. Family plays a significant role in the primary stage of attitudes held by individuals. Initially, a person develops certain attitudes from his parents, brothers, sister, and elders in the family.

There is a high degree of relationship between parent and children in attitudes found in what is attitude in literature. Societies play an important role in formatting the attitudes of an individual. The culture, the tradition, the language, etc. Society, tradition, and the culture teach individuals what is and what is not acceptable. A person's attitude also depends on issues such as his salary, status, work environment, work as such, etc. The classic, tripartite view offered by Rosenberg and Hovland [13] is that an attitude contains cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.

Empirical research, however, fails to support clear distinctions between thoughts, emotions, and behavioral intentions associated with a particular attitude. Thus some views of attitude structure see the cognitive and behavioral components as derivative of affect or affect and behavior as derivative of underlying beliefs, what is attitude in literature. Despite debate about the particular structure of attitudes, there is considerable evidence that attitudes reflect more than evaluations of a particular object that vary from positive to negative.

These ABC components of attitudes formulate, define, and contribute to an overall construct of Monetary Intelligence which, in turn, may be related to many theoretical work-related constructs. There is also a considerable interest in intra-attitudinal and inter-attitudinal structure, which is how an attitude is made expectancy and value and how different attitudes relate to one another.

Which connects different attitudes to one another and to more underlying psychological structures, such as values or ideology. An influential model of attitude is the multicomponent model, where attitudes are evaluations of an object that have affective, behavioral, and cognitive components the ABC model : [22].

This is the theory of attitude evaluation m otivation and o pportunity as de terminants of the attitude - behavior relation. When both are present, behavior will be deliberate. When one is absent, impact on behavior will be spontaneous. A person's attitude can be measured in two different ways:. Explicit measure are attitudes at the conscious level, that are deliberately formed and easy to self-report.

Implicit measures are attitudes that are at an unconscious level, that are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us. Implicit attitudes, what is attitude in literature, however, are most likely to affect behavior when the demands are steep and an individual feels stressed or distracted.

Another classic view of attitudes is that attitudes serve particular functions for individuals. That is, researchers have tried to understand why individuals hold particular attitudes or why they hold attitudes in general by considering how attitudes affect the individuals who hold them. As an example, the "ego-defensive" function might be used to influence the racially prejudicial attitudes of an individual who sees themselves as open-minded and tolerant.

By appealing to that individual's image of themselves as tolerant and open-minded, it may be possible to change their prejudicial attitudes to be more consistent with their self-concept.

Similarly, a persuasive message that threatens self-image is much more likely to be rejected. Utilitarian People adopt attitudes that are rewarding and that help them avoid punishment. In other words, any attitude that is adopted in a person's own self-interest is considered to serve a utilitarian function. Consider you have a condo, people with condos pay property taxes, what is attitude in literature, and as a result you don't want to pay more taxes.

If those factors lead to your attitude that "increases in property taxes are bad" your attitude is serving a utilitarian function. Knowledge People need to maintain an organized, meaningful, and stable view of the world.

That being said important values and general principles can provide a framework for our knowledge. Attitudes achieve this goal by making things fit together and make sense. Ego-Defensive This function involves psychoanalytic principles where people use defense mechanisms to protect themselves from psychological harm. Mechanisms include:. The ego-defensive notion correlates nicely with Downward Comparison Theory which holds the view that derogating a less fortunate other increases our own subjective well-being.

We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration or misfortune. According to Dooblearning can account for most of the attitudes we hold. The study of attitude formation is the study of what is attitude in literature people form evaluations of persons, places or things.

Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlike personalityattitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. In addition, exposure to the 'attitude' objects may have an effect on how a person forms his or her attitude. This concept was seen as the "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.

Mere what is attitude in literature exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude toward it. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values. As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a what is attitude in literature in our genes, twin studies are used. Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain of research on attitude change focuses on responses to communication.

Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include:. Emotion is a common component in persuasionsocial influenceand attitude change. Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components.

Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, what is attitude in literature, or the way we think, about an issue or situation.

Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and cognitive components.

Attitudes are part of the brain's associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes. By activating an affective or emotion node, what is attitude in literature, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined.

In primarily affective networks, what is attitude in literature, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change. Affective forecastingotherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important what is attitude in literature of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes.

How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude.

Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information. Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures. For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension Dillard, Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues in the era.

Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this what is attitude in literature include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted, and anger. Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research. Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change.

As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change.

Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind.

Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages. While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement. Self efficacy is a perception of one's own human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation.

It is an important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person's ability to deal with both the emotion and the situation. For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming. Dillard suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals.


What is the difference between tone, mood, and attitude in literature? | Yahoo Answers


what is attitude in literature


In literature an author sets the tone through words. The possible tones are bounded only by the number of possible emotions a human being can have. Diction and syntax often dictate what the author's (or character's) attitude toward his subject is at the time. A positive attitude can also improve your relationships and change how your boss perceives both you and your work. An article published in the January Gallup Management Journal notes that the components of a positive attitude, collectively called positive psychological capital, can be learned. events that intervene between checking the attitude and the behavior it is presumed to relate to: One will find in the literature well-chosen examples where prediction worked out well. Such examples do not represent the known universe of attitude studies or even the universe of the better studies and, hence, do not constitute by: