Recent Journal of Biotechnology Articles - Elsevier

 

research paper in biotechnology

Research in Biotechnology publishes high-quality articles in English. The primary criteria for publication is biological significance. All articles will be peer-reviewed. Papers will be published online usually with in a month after acceptance by an urologist in santa clarita. A monthly journal covering the science and business of biotechnology. It publishes new concepts of relevance to the biological, biomedical, agricultural and environmental sciences. RESEARCH IN BIOTECHNOLOGY The exciting new world of Biotechnology in the 21st century has developed as a result of the convergence of biological, physical and mathematical sciences to solve problems in ways never before imagined. The breathtaking advance of DNA sequencing is one example of the power of this approach.


How to Write a Research Paper on Biotechnology


This collection of bio technology research paper topics provides the list of 10 potential topics for research papers and overviews the history of biotechnology. The term biotechnology came into popular use around and was understood to mean the industrial use of microorganisms to make goods and services Commission of the European Communities, Although biotechnology is often associated with the application of genetics, that is too narrow an interpretation.

Rather the word has been used for almost a century to reflect a changing combination of the manipulation of organisms, the means of multiplying them using fermentation, and the extraction of useful products. Moreover, while the technology of the s was new, claims that the introduction of biotechnology would mark a new industrial revolution had been made with conviction and vision since the time of World War I.

Modern animal breeding relies on scientific methods to control production of domesticated animals, both livestock and pets, which exhibit desired physical and behavioral traits. Genetic technology aids animal breeders to attain nutritional, medical, recreational, and fashion standards demanded by consumers for animal products including meat, milk, eggs, leather, wool, and pharmaceuticals. Animals are also genetically designed to meet labor and sporting requirements for speed and endurance, conformation and beauty ideals to win show competitions, and intelligence levels to perform obediently at tasks such as herding, hunting, and tracking.

By the late twentieth century, genetics and mathematical models were appropriated to identify the potential of immature animals. DNA markers indicate how young animals will mature, saving breeders money by not investing in animals lacking genetic promise.

Scientists also successfully transplanted sperm-producing stem cells with the goal of restoring fertility to barren research paper in biotechnology animals. Researchers also began mapping research paper in biotechnology dog genome and developing molecular techniques to evaluate canine chromosomes in the Quantitative Trait Loci QTL.

Bioinformatics incorporates computers to analyze genetic material. Some tests were developed to diagnose many of research paper in biotechnology hundred genetic canine diseases including hip dysplasia and progressive retinal atrophy PRA. A few breed organizations modified standards to discourage breeding of genetically flawed animals and promote heterozygosity. In the early years of the twentieth century, the search for agents that would be effective against internal infections proceeded along two main routes.

The first was a search for naturally occurring substances that were effective against microorganisms antibiosis. The second was a search for chemicals that would have the same effect chemotherapy. Despite the success of penicillin in the s, the major early advances in the treatment of infection occurred not through antibiosis but through chemotherapy.

The principle behind chemotherapy was that there was a relationship between chemical structure and pharmacological action. The founder research paper in biotechnology this concept was Paul Erhlich — An early success came in when atoxyl an organic arsenic compound was shown to destroy trypanosomes, the microbes that caused sleeping sickness.

Unfortunately, atoxyl also damaged the optic nerve. Subsequently, Erhlich and his co-workers synthesized and tested hundreds of related arsenic compounds.

Ehrlich was a co-recipient with Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov of the Nobel Prize in medicine in for his work on immunity. Success in discovering a range of effective antibacterial drugs had three important consequences: it brought a range of important diseases under control for the first time; it provided a tremendous stimulus to research workers and opened up new avenues of research; and in the resulting commercial optimism, it led to heavy postwar investment in the pharmaceutical industry.

The therapeutic revolution had begun. Artificial insemination AI involves the extraction and collection of semen together with techniques for depositing semen in the uterus in order to achieve successful fertilization and pregnancy.

Throughout the twentieth century, the approach has offered animal breeders the advantage of being able to utilize the best available breeding stock and at the correct time within the female reproductive cycle, but without the limitations of having the animals in the same location, research paper in biotechnology. AI has been applied most intensively within the dairy and beef cattle industries and to a lesser extent horse breeding and numerous other domesticated species.

Many of the techniques involved in artificial insemination would lay the foundation for in vitro fertilization IVF in the latter half of the twentieth century, research paper in biotechnology. Biopolymers are natural polymers, long-chained molecules macromolecules consisting mostly of a repeated composition of building blocks or monomers that are formed and utilized by living organisms.

Each group of biopolymers is composed of different building blocks, for example chains of sugar molecules form starch a polysaccharidechains of amino acids form proteins and peptides, and chains of nucleic acid form DNA and RNA polynucleotides. Biopolymers can form gels, fibers, coatings, and films depending on the specific polymer, and serve a variety of critical functions for cells and organisms. Proteins including collagens, keratins, silks, tubulins, and actin usually form structural composites or scaffolding, or protective materials in biological systems e.

Polysaccharides function in molecular recognition at cell membrane surfaces, form capsular barrier layers around cells, act as emulsifiers and adhesives, research paper in biotechnology, and serve as skeletal or architectural materials in plants.

In many cases these polymers occur in combination with proteins to form novel composite structures such as invertebrate exoskeletons or microbial cell walls, or with lignin in the case of plant cell walls.

For instance, in the article by Ian Wilmut and colleagues announcing the birth of the first cloned adult vertebrate a ewe, Dolly the sheep from somatic cell nuclear transfer, the word clone or cloning was never used, research paper in biotechnology, and yet the announcement raised considerable disquiet about the prospect of cloned human beings.

Cloning has been known for centuries as a horticultural propagation method: for example, plants multiplied by grafting, budding, or cuttings do not differ genetically from the original plant. The term clone entered more common usage as a result of a speech in by J, research paper in biotechnology. At the close of the twentieth century, such techniques had not yet progressed to the ability to bring a cloned human to full development; however, the ability to clone cells from an adult human has potential to treat diseases.

The function of the distinction has been to permit the use in some countries of the technique to generate potentially beneficial therapeutic applications from embryonic stem cell technology whilst prohibiting its use in human reproduction.

Inresearch paper in biotechnology, Australian Nobel laureate Sir F. Ethical issues aside, he believed research paper in biotechnology practical considerations forestalled possibilities for any beneficial gene strategy, then or probably ever. Stanfield Rogers, working from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inhad tried but failed to cure argininemia a genetic disorder of the urea cycle that causes neurological damage in the form of mental retardation, seizures, and eventually death in two German girls using Swope papilloma virus.

Martin Cline at the University of California in Los Angeles, made the second failed attempt a decade later. He tried to correct the bone marrow cells of two beta-thalassemia patients, one in Israel and the other in Italy.

Gene mapping created the means for analyzing the expression patterns of hundreds of genes involved in biological pathways and for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs that have diagnostic and therapeutic potential for treating specific diseases in individuals.

They may also target blood vessel formation in order to prevent heart disease or blindness due to macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. One of the oldest ideas for use of gene therapy is to produce anticancer vaccines. One method involves inserting a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene into prostate tumor cells removed in surgery.

The cells then are irradiated to prevent any further cancer and injected back into the same patient to initiate an research paper in biotechnology response against any remaining metastases.

Whether or not such developments become a major treatment modality, no one now believes, as MacFarland Burnet did inthat gene therapy science has reached an end in its potential to advance health. At the close of the twentieth century, genetic engineering promised to revolutionize many industries, including microbial biotechnology, agriculture, and medicine. It also sparked controversy over potential health and ecological hazards due to the unprecedented ability to bypass traditional biological reproduction.

For centuries, if not millennia, techniques have been employed to alter the genetic characteristics of animals and plants to enhance specifically desired traits, research paper in biotechnology.

In a great many cases, research paper in biotechnology, breeds with which we are most familiar bear little resemblance to the wild varieties from which they are derived. Canine breeds, for instance, have been selectively tailored to changing esthetic tastes over many years, altering their appearance, behavior and temperament. Many of the species used research paper in biotechnology farming reflect long-term alterations to enhance meat, milk, and fleece yields.

Likewise, in the case of agricultural varieties, hybridization and selective breeding have resulted in crops that are adapted to specific production conditions and regional demands. Genetic engineering differs from these traditional methods of plant and animal breeding in some very important respects. First, genes from one organism can be extracted and recombined with those of another using research paper in biotechnology DNA, or rDNA, technology without either organism having to be of the same species.

Second, removing the requirement for species reproductive compatibility, new genetic combinations can be produced in a much more highly accelerated way than before. Since the development of the first rDNA organism by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer inresearch paper in biotechnology number of techniques have been found to produce highly novel products derived from transgenic plants and animals. At the same time, there has been an ongoing and ferocious political debate over the environmental and health risks to humans of genetically altered species.

The rise of genetic engineering may be characterized by developments during the last three decades of the twentieth century. The menu of genetic screening and testing technologies now available in most developed countries increased rapidly in the closing research paper in biotechnology of the twentieth century.

These technologies emerged within the context of rapidly changing social and legal contexts with regard to the medicalization of pregnancy and birth and the legalization of abortion. The earliest genetic screening tests detected inborn errors of metabolism and sex-linked disorders.

Technological innovations in genomic mapping and DNA sequencing, together with an explosion in research on the genetic basis of disease which culminated in the Human Genome Project HGPled to a range of genetic screening and testing for diseases traditionally recognized as genetic in origin and for susceptibility to more common diseases such as certain types of familial cancer, cardiac conditions, and neurological disorders among others.

Tests were also useful for forensic, or research paper in biotechnology, purposes. Genetic screening techniques are now available in conjunction with in vitro fertilization and other types of reproductive technologies, allowing the screening of fertilized embryos for certain genetic mutations before selection for implantation. At present selection is purely on disease grounds research paper in biotechnology selection for other traits e. Finally, genetic technologies are being used in the judicial domain for determination of paternity, often associated with child support claims, and for forensic purposes research paper in biotechnology cases where DNA material is available for testing.

We have continually tried to produce improved varieties while increasing yield, features to aid cultivation and harvesting, disease, and pest resistance, or crop qualities such as longer postharvest storage life and improved taste or nutritional value, research paper in biotechnology.

Early changes resulted from random crosspollination, rudimentary grafting, or spontaneous genetic change. The pioneering work of Gregor Mendel and his development of the basic laws of heredity showed for other first time that some of the processes of heredity could be altered by experimental means. The knowledge that genes are linked along the chromosome thereby allowed mapping of genes transduction analysis, research paper in biotechnology, conjugation analysis, and transformation analysis.

The power of genetics to produce a desirable plant was established, and it was appreciated that controlled breeding test crosses and back crosses and careful analysis of the progeny could distinguish traits that were dominant or recessive, and establish pure breeding lines.

Traditional horticultural techniques of artificial self-pollination and cross-pollination were also used to produce hybrids. In the research paper in biotechnology the Russian Nikolai Vavilov recognized the value of genetic diversity in domesticated crop plants and their wild relatives to crop improvement, and collected seeds from the wild to study total genetic diversity and use these in breeding programs. It was also discovered that plant cells and tissues grown in tissue culture would mutate rapidly.

In the s, haploid breeding, which involves producing research paper in biotechnology from two identical sets of chromosomes, was extensively used to create new cultivars. In the twenty-first century, haploid breeding could speed up plant breeding by shortening the breeding cycle. The technique of tissue or cell culture, which relates to the growth of tissue or cells within a laboratory setting, underlies a phenomenal proportion of biomedical research.

Though it has roots in the late nineteenth century, when numerous scientists tried to grow samples in alien environments, cell culture is credited as truly beginning with the first concrete evidence of successful growth in vitro, demonstrated by Johns Hopkins University embryologist Ross Harrison in Harrison took sections of spinal cord from a frog embryo, placed them on a glass cover slip and bathed the tissue in a nutrient media, research paper in biotechnology.

The results of research paper in biotechnology experiment were startling—for the first time scientists visualized actual nerve growth as it would happen in a living organism—and many other scientists across the U. Rather unwittingly, for he was merely trying to settle a professional dispute regarding the origin of nerve fibers, Harrison fashioned a research tool that has since been designated by many as the greatest advance in medical science since the invention of the microscope.

From the s, cell culture has once again been brought to the forefront of cancer research in the isolation and identification of numerous cancer causing oncogenes. In addition, cell culturing continues to play a crucial role in fields such as cytology, embryology, radiology, and molecular genetics.

In the future, its relevance to direct clinical treatment might be further increased by the growth in culture research paper in biotechnology stem cells and tissue replacement therapies that can be tailored for a particular individual. Indeed, research paper in biotechnology cell culture approaches its research paper in biotechnology, it appears that its importance to scientific, medical, and commercial research the world over will only increase in the twenty-first century, research paper in biotechnology.

Biotechnology grew out of the technology of fermentation, which was called zymotechnology. This was different from the ancient craft of brewing because of its thought-out relationships to science. These were most famously conceptualized by the Prussian chemist Georg Ernst Stahl — in his treatise Zymotechnia Fundamentalis, in which he introduced the term zymotechnology.

Carl Balling, long-serving professor in Prague, the world center of brewing, drew on the work of Stahl when he published his Bericht uber die Fortschritte der zymotechnische Wissenschaften und Gewerbe Account of the Progress of the Zymotechnic Sciences and Arts in the mid-nineteenth century. He used the idea of zymotechnics to compete with his German contemporary Justus Liebig for whom chemistry was the underpinning of all processes.

Research paper in biotechnology the end of the nineteenth century, research paper in biotechnology, there were attempts to develop a new scientific study of fermentation, research paper in biotechnology.

 

Research Topics in Biotechnology | Sciencing

 

research paper in biotechnology

 

A monthly journal covering the science and business of biotechnology. It publishes new concepts of relevance to the biological, biomedical, agricultural and environmental sciences. RESEARCH IN BIOTECHNOLOGY The exciting new world of Biotechnology in the 21st century has developed as a result of the convergence of biological, physical and mathematical sciences to solve problems in ways never before imagined. The breathtaking advance of DNA sequencing is one example of the power of this approach. Food biotechnology research, according to the University of California at Davis, is the production of new plants and animals through genetic engineering for the purpose of food production. Genetic research in this field can involve the use of recombinant DNA (rDNA), a technique whereby scientists remove the genes that produce desirable traits.